The Viking Labeled Release Experiment and Life on Mars. Lost civilizations

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Presentation to Viking Science Team, JPL, Aug. 1, 1976.
35. Oyama, V.I. and B.J. Berdahl, "A Model of Martian Surface Chemistry," J. Mol. Evol., 14, 199, 1979.
36. Op. Cit. 34.
37. Krasnopolsky, V., G.L. Bjoraker, M. J. Mumma and D. E. Jennings, "High-resolution spectroscopy of Mars at 3.7 and 8.4 ╡m: A sensitive search for H2O2, H2CO, HCl, and CH4, and detection of HDO, J. Geophys. Res., 102, No. E3, 6525-6534, 1997.
38. Levin, G. V. and P. A. Straat, "A Search for a Nonbiological Explanation of the Viking Labeled Release Life Detection Experiment," Icarus, 45, 494-516, 1981.
39. Schumb, W.C., C.N. Satterfield and R.L. Wentworth, in Hydrogen Peroxide, p. 520, Am. Chem. Soc. Monograph Series, Reinhold Pub. Corp., NY, 1995.
40. Bullock, M.A., C.R. Stoker, C.P. McKay and A.P. Zent, "A Coupled Soil-Atmosphere Model of H2O2 on Mars," Icarus, 107, 142, 1994.
41. Op. Cit. 11.
42. Op. Cit. 12.
43. Hargraves, R.B., D.W. Collinson, R.E. Arvidson and C.R. Spitzer, "The Viking Magnetic Properties Experiment: Primary Mission Results," J. Geophys. Res., 82, 4547, 1977.
44. Plumb, R., R. Tantayanon, M. Libby and W.W. Xu, "Chemical Model for Viking Biology Experiments: Implication for the Composition of the Martin Regolith," Nature, 338, 633, 1989.
45. Clark, B.C., A.K. Baird, H.J. Rose, P. Toulmin III, R.P. Christian, W.C. Kelliher, A.J. Castro, C.D. Rowe, K. Kiel and G.R. Huss, "The Viking X Ray Fluorescence Experiment: Analytical Methods and Early Results," J. Geophys. Res., 82, 4577, 1977.
46. Neftel A., P. Jacob and D. Klockow, Tellus, 38B, 262, 1986.
47. McKay, C.P. and C.R. Stoker, "The Early Environment and Its Evolution on Mars," Rev. Geophys., 27, 189, 1989.
48. Hanel, R., B. Conrath, W. Hovis, V. Kunde, P. Lowman, W. Maguire, J. Pearl, J. Pirraglia, C. Prabhakara, B. Schlachman, G. Levin, P. Straat, and T. Burke, "Investigation of the martian Environment by Infrared Spectroscopy on Mariner 9," Icarus, 17, 423, 1972.
49. Carr, M. H., Water on Mars, Figure 1-2, P 10, Oxford University Press, New York, 1996.
50. Moore, H.J. et al, "Surface Materials of the Viking Landing Sites," J. Geophys. Res, 82, No. 28, 4497-4523, 1977.
51. Kieffer, H. H., T. Z. Martin, A. R., Peterfreund, B. M. Jakosky, E. D. Minor, and F. D. Palluconi, "Thermal and Albedo Mapping of Mars During the Viking Primary Mission," J. Geophys. Res., 82, 4249-4291, 1977.
52. Op. Cit. 51, Figure 18a.
53. Ibid.
54. Coblentz, W.W., "Further Measurement of Stellar Temperatures and Planetary Radiation," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 8, 330, 1922.
55. Coblentz, W.W. and C.O. Lampland, Sci. Pap. Bur. Stand., 22, 237, 1927.
56. Pettit, E. and S.B. Nicholson, "Measurements of the Radiation From the Planet Mars," Pop. Astron., 32, 601, 1924.
57. Op. Cit. 51.
58. Levin, G.V. and A.H.Heim, in Life Sciences and Space Research III, M. Florkin, ed., North Holland Pub. Co., 1965.
59. McKay, C.P., R.L. Mancinelli, C.R. Stoker, and R.A. Wharton, Jr., in Mars, pp. 1234-1245, Keiffer, H.H., B.M. Jakosky, C.W. Snyder, M.S. Mathews, eds., U. Ariz. Press, Tucson, 1992.
60. Sander, S.P., R.R. Friedl and Y.L. Yung, "Rate of Formation of the CIO Dimmer in the Polar Stratosphere: Implications for Ozone Loss," Science, 245, 1095, 1989.
61. Pribble, R.N. and T.S. Zwier, "Size-Specific Infrared Spectra of Benzene-(H2O)n Clustersw (n = 1 through 7): Evidence for Noncyclic (H2O)n Structures," Science, 265, 75, 1994.
62. Li, J. and D.K. Ross, "Evidence for Two Kinds of Hydrogen Bond in Ice," Nature, 365, 327, 1993.
63. Hu, J., X.-D. Xiao, D.F. Ogletree and M. Salmeron, "Imaging the Condensation and Evaporation of Molecularly Thin Films of Water with Nanometer Resolution," Science, 268, 267, 1995.




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