Egyptian Dynasties

Egyptian Dynasties

Egypt lies in northeast Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, the Sinai Peninsula and the Red Sea. Around 3000 BC, Egypt emerged from the twilight of prehistory as one country, united under the single rule of a divine king. Before that, it is generally assumed that the country was divided in two parts: the North or Lower-Egypt or the Nile-Delta, and the South, between the Delta and the first cataract, Upper-Egypt.

The king is portrayed wearing the royal nemes headcloth, the royal beard and the double crown, symbolizing his rule over Upper and Lower Egypt. The royal uraeus on his forehead protects him against all evil. His mission is to united the Lands of Egypt and bring spiritual unity to the people. The pharaohs worshipped the gods.

Most of the Pharaohs were men. In the 18th Dynasty Queen Hatshesut came into power, and again at the end of the 19th Dynasty, Queen Tausert ruled Egypt for two years.

The exact lineage of the pharaohs in many cases, remains unknown. Most married within their families to keep the bloodlines pure. Often a pharaoh might his daughter. Siblings would marry. Pharaohs had many wives and many concubines. There generally was a main wife.

Pharaohs came to rule at very young ages. Many were murdered, their exact fates unknown.

Their favorite pastime – from the time they ascended the throne – was the building of huge burial monuments or pyramids – some of which are found in the valley of the Kings on the West bank of the Nile. Monuments have been ransacked for leaving many empty – the remains of those supposedly buried within, a mystery.

In the Late Kingdom, chaos ruled, and Egypt fell to the Persians who remained in power until the Greco-Roman Period. This was the time of the Macedonian Kings and the Ptolemaic Dynasty which concluded with the last Pharaoh, the famous Cleopatra VII. She committed suicide on August 12, 30 BC at the age of 39 thus ending the are of the dynasties. The Roman Era would not take control of Egypt destroying much of the sacred monuments created through the centuries.

It was as if one cycle of time was ending (BC) as another was about to emerge (AD). the face of reality, religion, and the world at large would never be the same.



PRE-DYNASTY
Narmer - The Scorpion King


EARLY DYNASTIC PERIOD  

THE FIRST DYNASTY - 3050 - 2890 B.C. 
Menes - AHA
Djer
Wadj
Den - Udimu
Anedjob
Semerkat
Qa'a 


SECOND DYNASTY - 3890-2686 B.C. 
Hetepsekhemwy
Reneb
Ninetjer
Peribsen - Sekhemib
Keasekhemwy



THE OLD KINGDOM - AGE OF THE PYRAMIDS

THIRD DYNASTY - 2650 - 2575 B.C. 
 Sanakhte (Nebka) 2650 - 2630
 Djoser - Netjerykhet  2630 - 2611
 Sekhemkhet (Djoser Teti) 2611 - 2603
 Khaba 2603 - 2599
 Huni 2599 - 2575 


FOURTH DYNASTY - 2575 - 2467 B.C.
 Snefru 2575 - 2551
 Khufu (Cheops) 2551 - 2528
 Djedefre 2528 - 2520
 Khafre (Chephren) 2520 - 2494
 Menkaure (Mycerinus) 2490 - 2472
 Shepseskaf 2472 - 2467 


FIFTH DYNASTY - 2465 - 2345 B.C.
 Userkaf 2465 - 2458
 Sahure 2458 - 2446
 Neferirkare Kakai 2477-2467
 Shepseskare Ini 2426 - 2419
 Neferefre 2419 - 2416
 Niuserre Izi 2453 - 2422
 Menkauhor 2422 - 2414
 Djedkare Izezi 2388 - 2356
 Unas 2375-2345


SIXTH DYNASTY  - 2345 - 2184 B.C.
 Teti 2345 - 2333
 Pepy I (Meryre) 2332 - 2283
 Merenre Nemtyemzaf 2283 2278
 Pepy II (Neferkare) 2278 - 2184



FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD

SEVENTH - TENTH DYNASTIES - 2150 - 1986 B.C.

SEVENTH & EIGHTH DYNASTIES 
 Netrikare
 Menkare
 Neferkare II
 Neferkare III
 Djedkare II
 Neferkare IV
 Merenhor
 Menkamin I
 Nikare
 Neferkare V
 Neferkahor
 Neferkare VI
 Neferkamin II
 Ibi I
 Neferkaure
 Neferkauhor
 Neferirkare II 
 Wadjkare
 Sekhemkare
 Iti
 Imhotep
 Isu
 Iytenu 


NINETH & TENTH DYNASTIES
 Neferkare
 several kings named Kheti
 Meri-Hathor (?)
 Merikare  


MIDDLE KINGDOM


ELEVENTH DYNASTY 
 Antef I
 Antef II
 Antef III
 Mentuhotep II 2055 -2004
 Mentuhotep III (Sankhkare) 2004 - 1992
 Mentuhotep IV (Nebtawyre) 1992 - 1987 


TWELFTH DYNASTIES
 Amenemhet I (Sehetepibre) 1991 - 1962
 Senusret I (Kheperkare) 1956 - 1911
 Amenemhet II (Nubkaure) 1911 - 1877
 Senusret II (Khakheperre) 1877 - 1870
 Senusret III (Khakaure) 1836 - 1817
 Amenemhet III (Nimaatre) 1817 - 1772
 Amenemhet IV (Maakherure) 1772 - 1763
 Neferusobek (Sobekkare) 1763 - 1759 


SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD

THIRTEENTH - SEVENTEENTH DYNASTIES

THIRTEENTH DYNASTY

 Wegaf  1783-1779
 Amenemhat-senebef
 Sekhemre-khutawi
 Amenemhat V
 Sehetepibre I
 Iufni
 Amenemhat VI
 Semenkare
 Sehetepibre II
 Sewadjkare
 Nedjemibre
 Sobekhotep I 
 Reniseneb
 Hor I
 Amenemhat VII
 Sobekhotep II
 Khendjer
 Imira-mesha
 Antef IV
 Seth
 Sobekhotep III
 Neferhotep I 1696 - 1686
 Sihathor 1685 - 1685
 Sobekhotep IV 1685 - 1678
 Sobekhotep V 1678 - 1674
 Iaib 1674 - 1664
 Ay 1664 - 1641
 Ini I
 Sewadjtu
 Ined
 Hori
 Sobekhotep VI
 Dedumes I
 Ibi II
 Hor II
 Senebmiu
 Sekhanre I
 Merkheperre
 Merikare 

FOURTEENTH DYNASTY
 Nehesi
 Khatire
 Nebfaure
 Sehabre
 Meridjefare
 Sewadjkare
 Heribre
 Sankhibre
 Kanefertemre
 Neferibre
 Ankhkare

FIFTEENTH DYNASTY
 Salitis
 Bnon
 Apachnan (Khian)
 Apophis (Auserre Apepi)
 Khamudi 

SIXTEENTH DYNASTY
 Anat-Her
 User-anat
 Semqen
 Zaket
 Wasa
 Qar
 Pepi III
 Bebankh
 Nebmaatre
 Nikare II
 Aahotepre
 Aaneterire
 Nubankhre
 Nubuserre
 Khauserre 
 Khamure
 Jacob-Baal
 Yakbam
 Yoam
 Amu

SEVENTEENTH DYNASTY
 Antef V 
 Rahotep
 Sobekemzaf I
 Djehuti
 Mentuhotep VII
 Nebirau I
 Nebirau II
 Semenenre
 Suserenre
 Sobekemzaf II
 Antef VI
 Antef VII
 Tao I (Senakhtenre)
 Tao II (Sekenenre)
 Kamose (Wadjkheperre) 
 



THE NEW KINGDOM


EIGHTEENTH DYNASTY
Ahmose (Nebpehtyre) 1539 - 1514 BC
Amenhotep I (Djeserkare) 1514 - 1493 BC
Thutmose I (Akheperkare) 1493 - 1481 BC
Thutmose II (Akheperenre) 1491 - 1479 BC
Hatshepsut (Maatkare) 1473 - 1458 BC
Thutmose III (Menkheperre) 1504 - 1450 BC
Amenhotep II (Akheperure) 1427 - 1392 BC
Thutmose IV (Menkheperure) 1419 - 1386 BC
Amenhotep III (Nebmaatre) 1382 - 1344 BC
Amenhotep IV / Akhenaten 1350 - 1334 BC
Smenkhkare (Ankhkheperure) 1336-1334 BC
Tutankhamun (Nebkheperure) 1334 - 1325 - King Tut BC
Ay (Kheperkheperure) 1325 - 1321  BC
Horemheb (Djeserkheperure) 1323 - 1295 BC


NINETEENTH DYNASTY
Ramesses I (Menpehtyre) 1295 - 1294
Seti I (Menmaatre) 1394 - 1279
Ramesses II (Usermaatresetepenre) 1279 - 1213
Merenptah (Baenrehotephirmaat) 1213 - 1203
Amenmesse (Menmire) 1203 - 1200
Seti II (Userkheperuresetepenre) 1200 - 1194
Siptah (Akhenresetepenre) 1194 - 1188
Tausert (Sitremeritamun) 1185-1187 


TWENTIETH DYNASTY

Setakht (Userkhauremeryamun) 1186 - 1184
Ramesses III (Usermaatremeryamun) 1184 - 1153
Ramesses IV (Hekamaatresetepenamun) 1153 - 1147
Ramesses V (Usermaatresekheperenre) 1147 - 1143
Ramesses VI (Nebmaatremeryamun) 1143 - 1136
Ramesses VII (Usermaatresetepenre) 1136 - 1129
Ramesses VIII (Usermaatreakhenamun) 1129 - 1126
Ramesses IX (Neferkaresetepenre) 1126 - 1108
Ramesses X (Khepermaatresetepenre) 1108 - 1099
Ramesses XI (Menmaatresetepenptah) 1099 - 1069


THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD (1070-715 BC)

TWENTY-FIRST  -  TWENTY-FOURTH DYNASTIES


TWENTY-FIRST DYNASTY
 Smedes 1070-1044
 Amenemnisu 1040
 Psusennes I 1040-992
 Amenope 993-984
 Osochor 984-978
 Siamun 978-959
 Psusennes II 959-945


TWENTY-SECOND DYNASTY
 Shoshenq I 945-924
 Osorkon I 924-909
 Takelot 909--?
 Shoshenq II ?--883
 Osorkon II 883-855
 Takelot II 860-835
 Shoshenq III 835-783
 Pami 783-773
 Shoshenq IV 773-735
 Osorkon IV 735-712


TWENTY-THIRD DYNASTY

 Pedubaste I 828-803
 Osorkon IV 777-749
 Peftjauwybast 740-725


TWENTY-FOURTH DYNASTY
 Shepsesre Tefnakht I 725-720
 Wahkare Bakenranef 720-715


LATE KINGDOM

TWENTY-FIFTH DYNASTY 
Piye 747-716 BC
Shebaka 712-698
Shebitku 698-690
Taharqa 690-664
Tantamani 664-657


TWENTY-SIXTH DYNASTY 
Psammetichus I (Psam-tik) 664-610
Nekau (Necho) II 610-595
Psammetichus II 595-589
Apries 589-570
Amasis 570-526
Psammetichus III 526-525


TWENTY-SEVENTH DYNASTY

Cambyses 525-522
Darius I 521-486
Xerxes I 486-466
Artaxerxes I 465-424
Darius II 424-404


TWENTY-EIGHTH DYNASTY
Amyrtaios 404-399 


TWENTY-NINETH DYNASTY
 Nepherites I 399-393
 Psammuthis 393
 Hakoris 393-380
 Nepherites II 380


THIRTIETH DYNASTY
 Nectanebo I 380-362
 Teos 365-360
 Nectanebo II 360-343


SECOND PERSIAN PERIOD (343-332 B.C.) 


THIRTY-FIRST DYNASTY

 Ochus (Artaxerxes III) 343-338
 Arses 338-336
 Darius III Codomannus 335-332 


GRECO-ROMAN PERIOD (332 B.C. - 395 A.D.)  

 Macedonian Kings - Alexandria 
 Alexander the Great 332-323
 Philip Arrhidaeus 323-316
 Alexander IV 316-304


Ptolemaic Dynasty 
 Ptolemy I Soter I 323-285
 Ptolemy II Philadelphus 282-246
 Ptolemy III Euergeter I 246-222
 Ptolemy IV Philopator 222-205
 Ptolemy V Epiphanes 205-180
 Ptolemy VI Philometor 180-164 &
 163-145
 Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator 145
 Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II 170-163 &
 145-116
 Cleopatra III & Ptolemy IX Soter II 116-107 &
 88-80
 Cleopatra III & Ptolemy X Alexander I 107-88
 Cleopatra Berenice 81-80
 Ptolemy XI Alexander II 80
 Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos 80-58 &
 55-51
 Berenice IV 58-55

 Cleopatra VII 

 Cleopatra  VII & Ptolemy XIII 51-47
 Cleopatra & Ptolemy XIV 47-44
 Cleopatra VII & Ptolemy XV Cesarion 44-30


Roman Emperors
 Augustus 30 B.C. - 14 A.D.
 Tiberius 14-37
 Gaius Caligula 37-41
 Claudius 41-54
 Nero 54-68
 Galba 68-69
 Vespasianus 69-79
 Titus 79-81
 Domitianus 81-96
 Nerva 96-98
 Trajanus 98-117
 Hadrianus 117-138
 Antoninus Pius 138-161
 Marcus Aurelius 161-180
 Lucius Verrus 
 Commodus 180-192
 Septimus Severus 193-211
 Caracalla 198-217
 Geta 209-212

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