Piri Reis Map? Discovery near Cuba? Scott Stones?
Piri Reis Map
The Piri Reis Map of 1513 is the first surviving map that shows the Americas
(the Vinland map may be older but only shows a part of North America). The Piri
Reis map shows North America, South America, Greenland and Antarctica which had
not yet been discovered.
Piri Reis was a famous admiral of the Turkish fleet in the sixteenth century.
His passion was cartography, he was always on the lookout for new maps and other
such documents. In 1513 a map had been commissioned him.
Piri Reis was high rank within the Turkish navy which allowed him to have a
privileged access to the Imperial Library of Constantinople. He was considered
an expert on Mediterranean lands and coastlines, and he even wrote a famous
sailing book called
Kitabi Bahriye where he described all the details of
coastlines, harbors, currents, shallows, bays and straits of the Mediterranean
and Aegean seas. He died in 1554 or 1555 being beheaded for unknown reasons.
It is said that in a now-forgotten sea battle he met, among the prisoners, a
sailor who claimed to have been sailing along with Columbus in his three
journeys to the new world, and that he was one of his pilots. It turned out that
Columbus had a map of the lands he was chasing, and that this map now was in the
possession of that pilot.
The admiral Piri Reis got to put hands and eyes on the map; then in 1513 he
compiled a world map based on that map and on the other antique charts from his
collection - many of which had survived from the days of the Great Library of
The map had drawn the attention of scholars in 1929 when it had been
discovered in the archives of the Imperial Palace in Constantinople.
The map showed the outline of South America very accurately. This was
surprising since Columbus had discovered the New World only 21 years earlier in
Notes made by Piri indicated he had based his map on earlier maps, including
one consulted by Columbus before his famous voyage.
This excited the scholars since there had been rumors that there existed a
pre-Columbian map of the New World. Piri's claim that he had possessed the "lost
map" intrigued historians.
It wasn't the accuracy of the South American coastline that interested
Mallery, though. It was what was shown at the very bottom of the map: a chunk of
land that looked very much like Antarctica.
This was surprising since Antarctica had not been discovered until 1820.
Even more intriguing was a section of the coastline of this southern
Part of it looked very much like the coast of Queen Maud Land which was a
section of Antarctica.
The strange thing was that the coast of Queen Maud Land had been covered with
a thick sheet of ice for many centuries and its shape was only known now to
modern mapmakers through the use of modern seismographic equipment.
This made Mallory wonder if the Admiral had somehow owned maps that dated
back before the ice sheet covered the coast and if the coast had been somehow
surveyed from the air.
Most serious professional geographers, though, rejected Mallery's radical
theory without even considering it carefully.
Professor Charles H. Hapgood, of Keene State College at the University of New
Hampshire, did take an interest in the map and Mallory's thoughts. Professor
Hapgood was known for his support of unorthodox theories.
With the help of some of his students, Hapgood did a careful examination of
Piri's map and several other old maps and published a book on the subject called
Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings.
The book suggests that at one time in the ancient past there was a world-wide
civilization with advanced technology. Though this civilization was destroyed,
some of its knowledge survived to wind up in the maps.
Later, an even more radical theory for Piri's map was advanced from writer
Eric Von Daniken. Von Daniken, a supporter of the idea that aliens had visited
Earth in the distant past, noted that the map resembled what might be seen from
space if you took a picture of Earth from directly over Cairo, Egypt. He
suggested that the map was the result of aerial photographs taken from an alien
Critics of Hapgood and Von Daniken offer a more mundane explanation for the
map. They start by pointing out that lots of maps from that era displayed a
continent at the bottom of the Earth, though none had yet been found.
There was a general belief going back to the time of the Greeks that all the
continents must have been connected at one time. This lead to the belief in a
southern continent (Interestingly enough, they were correct.
The modern theory of plate tectonics supports the idea of single land mass in
the very distant past).
The critics point out that the land mass shown on the map may have a similar
coastline to that of Queen Maud Land, but the similarity is not unmistakable.
What is on Piri's map, they argue, is just a lucky attempt to display an
unknown, but suspected land. The similarity, say critics, is just coincidence.
They also point out that the map shows South America and Antarctica
connected, which they have not been for many millions of years. Also information
about weather conditions and animal life in Antarctica as found on the map is
Other experts speculate that though the first recorded sighting of land in
the Antarctica was in 1820, there may have been earlier unreported voyages to
the southern reaches.
Though this might not explain the coastline of Queen Maud Land on the Piri
map, it might be the reason that there was such a strong belief in the existence
of a southern continent.
Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings
An ancient map that King Henry owned in 1500 A.D. clearly shows
Greek documents and maps showing Atlantis that Christopher Columbus
studied before he set sail for America, including the 1482 Benincasa Map showing
3 Atlantis islands that no longer exist!
Explorers View 'Lost City' Ruins Under Caribbean
December 6, 2001 - Reuters
Explorers using a miniature submarine to probe the sea floor off the coast of
Cuba said on Thursday they had confirmed the discovery of stone structures deep
below the ocean surface that may have been built by an unknown human
civilization thousands of years ago.
Researchers with a Canadian exploration company said they filmed over the
summer ruins of a possible submerged ``lost city'' off the Guanahacabibes
Peninsula on the Caribbean island's western tip. The researchers cautioned that
they did not fully understand the nature of their find and planned to return in
January for further analysis, the expedition leader said on Thursday.