|Egiptian Pharaoh Akhenaten and Nefertiti. Ancient Egypt
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Akhenaten - Egiptian Pharaoh
1369-1332 BC: Amenhotep IV - Akhenaten
The Pharaoh Akhenaten was known as the Heretic King. He was the tenth King of the 18th Dynasty. Egyptologists are still tying to figure out what actually happened during his lifetime as much of the truth was buried, for all time, after he died.
Akhenaten lived at the peak of Egypt's imperial glory. Egypt had never been richer, more powerful, or more secure. Up and down the Nile, workers built hundreds of temples to pay homage to the Gods. They believed that if the Gods were pleased, Egypt would prosper. And so it did.
Akhenaten and his family lived in the great religious center of Thebes, city of the God Amun. There were thousands of priests
who served the Gods. Religion was the 'business' of the time, many earning their living connected to the worship of the gods.
All indications are that as a child Akhenaten was a family outcast. Scientists are studying the fact that Akhenaten suffered from a disease called Marfan Syndrome, a genetic defect that damages the body's connective tissue. Symptoms include, short torso, long head, neck, arms, hand and feet, pronounced collarbones, pot belly, heavy thighs, and poor muscle tone. Those who inherit it are often unusually tall and are likely to have weakened aortas that can rupture. They can die at an early age. If Akhnaton had the disease each of his daughters had a 50-50 change of inheriting it. That is why his daughters are shown with similar symptoms.
Akhenaten was the son of Amenhotep III and Queen Tiy, a descendent of a Hebrew tribe. The largest statue in the Cairo Museum shows Amenhotep III and his family. He and Queen Tiy (pronounced 'Tee') had four daughters and two sons. Akhenaten's brother, Tutmoses was later named high priest of Memphis. The other son, Amenhotep IV (Later to take the name Akhenaten) seemed to be ignored by the rest of the family. He never appeared in any portraits and was never taken to public events. He received no honors. It was as if the God Amun had excluded him. He was rejected by the world for some unknown reason. He was never shown with his family nor mentioned on monuments. Yet his mother favored him.
Akhenaten and Queen Tiy
In 1352 BC. Akhenaten ascended the throne, succeeding his father Amenhotep III who had died. Akhenaten was just a teenager at the time, but it was the desire of Queen Tiy that he rule. In some version of the story, it is written that father and son shared the throne briefly.
Akhenaten's reign lasted 16 years. This was a difficult time in Egyptian history. Many scholars maintain that Akhenaten was responsible for this decline, but evidence suggests that it had already started.
Akhenaten is principally famous for his religious reforms, where the polytheism of Egypt was to be supplanted by monotheism centered around Aten, the god of the solar disc. This was possibly a move to lessen the political power of the Priests. Now the Pharaoh, not the priesthood, was the sole link between the people and Aten which effectively ended the power of the various temples.
Akhenaten built a temple to his god Aten immediately outside the east gate of the temple of Amun at Karnak, but clearly the coexistence of the two cults could not last. He therefore proscribed the cult of Amun, closed the god's temples, took over the revenues. He then sent his officials around to destroy Amun's statues and to desecrate the worship sites. These actions were so contrary to the traditional that opposition arose against him. The estates of the great temples of Thebes, Memphis and Heliopolis reverted to the throne. Corruption grew out of the mismanagement of such large levies.
Akhenaten's Great Royal Wife was Queen Nefertiti.
Queen Nefertiti is often referred to in history as "The Most Beautiful Woman in the World." The Berlin bust, seen from two different angles, is indeed, the most famous depiction of Queen Nefertiti. Found in the workshop of the famed sculptor Thutmose, the bust is believed to be a sculptor's model. The technique which begins with a carved piece of limestone, requires the stone core to be first plastered and then richly painted. Flesh tones on the face give the bust life.
Her full lips are enhanced by a bold red. Although the crystal inlay is missing from her left eye, both eyelids and brows are outlined in black. Her graceful elongated neck balances the tall, flat-top crown which adorns her sleek head. The vibrant colors of the her necklace and crown contrast the yellow-brown of her smooth skin. While everything is sculpted to perfection, the one flaw of the piece is a broken left ear. Because this remarkable sculpture is still in existence, it is no wonder why Nefertiti remains "The Most Beautiful Woman in the World."
Nefertiti's origins are confusing. It has been suggested to me that Tiy was also her mother. Another suggestion is that Nefertiti was Akhenaten's cousin. Her wet nurse was the wife of the vizier Ay, who could have been Tiy's brother. Ay sometimes called himself "the God's father," suggesting that he might have been Akhenaten's father-in-law. However Ay never specifically refers to himself as the father of Nefertiti, although there are references that Nefertiti's sister, Mutnojme, is featured prominently in the decorations of the tomb of Ay. We will never know the truth of this bloodline. Perhaps they didn't know either.
This shrine stela also from the early part of the Amarna period depicts Akhenaten, Nefertiti, and
Princesses Meretaten, Mekeaten, and Ankhesenpaaten worshiping the Aten as a family. Dorothea Arnold
in her article "Aspects of the Royal Female Image during the Amarna Period" discusses the plethora of
reliefs depicting intimate family moments. While Akhenaten leans forward to give Meretaten a kiss,
Mekeaten plays on her mother's lap and gazes up lovingly.
At the same time Ankhesenpaaten, the
smallest, sits on Nefertiti's shoulder and fiddles with her earring. Arnold claims that the shrine stela
"relates to the Aten religion's concept of creation" in which the King and Queen are viewed as "a primeval
'first pair." At the top of the composition, the sun-god, Aten, represented by a raised circle, extends his
life-giving rays to the Royal Family. The relief uses the concept of the "window of appearances" or a
snapshot of life. The figures are framed by a fictive structure which suggests the form of a square
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COOOL BEANSS!!!, 24/11:
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watts itooya, 21/11:
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I am a 6th grader, 01/11:
i feel that for my project i need more info on how AKHENETAN died..... so who ever wrote this better add this in because other people might want to know how he died....
This has some really great info bu needs to have the death of Akhenaton.
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6th Calyssa, 06/10:
this is very interesting. This is great for my report at school. My teacher wants great information so i think this is a great website.
good info, really helped me in my essay, bur i need to know, the date it was updated, author ect, for a proper bibliography. thankyou.
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I really liked this websit it was so informational and I got so much info. I filled a whole page and my teacher was so inpressed. If your thinking I did pladurism no I reworded the inf. I got.
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Hey! This site was sort of helpful. It had a lot of information, but i could easily find the same info elsewhere. All the stuff on the time of Akhenaten is about his religious rebellion, and i really want to know what daily life was like back then, for like, 'commoners' kind of thing. It is really hard to find.
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Queen Nefertiti is the best.
Could you become a Pharaoh if you were born a farm-boy?
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I\'m so cool 1, 26/10:
This site helped me with a important prodject im doing!
i reckon that there had to be more information the Nefertiti's achievements
I'm finding it hard to find to answer
Oi does any one know what caused the end of the aramana period??
Like maybe what were the poticial, social reasons that the aramana period ended??
Rauri Barron, 18/05:
Good website, but where are the Authors names? It would help if they were clearly stated.
ashley stevens, 11/04:
i wish you could put a list of names of egyptians
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nice and easy, 20/03:
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U really need bibliographic details. Desperately
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Egyptian Beauty, 15/01:
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Ashlyn DiLoreto, 19/12:
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brandon lessor, 20/11:
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7th hour, 14/11:
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Akhenaton is a hottie with a body.
5th hour.., 14/11:
boob is spelled backwards!
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7th hour to tmm, 13/11:
boob can be spelled backwards and be the smae word..betcha didnt knoow that one
7th hour?, 13/11:
well martha loves you too
Akhenaton and Nefertiti were the hottest couple of the Egyptain period!
5th hour?, 13/11:
nefertiti is awsome and kooey is hott
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Libby Jensen, 23/10:
Great! You helped me out so much!!
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Abdullah Hadi, 08/06:
i love nefatiti and her titis
So you either copied crystal links, or they copied you. How original....
jake benson accuacly addison, 06/06:
sup jake from me
darth nader, 06/06:
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darth nader, 22/05:
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fatty 101, 22/05:
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egyptian is spelt with a y not an i
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bob benson, 17/03:
You spelled Egyptian wrong!!!!
PAUL MACHEWERE, 20/02:
Put more good thins that Queen Nefertiti did other than that she was the most good looking woman.
. I am doing a project, at my college base on Queen Nefertiti and this website has successfully helped me out to find out information of Queen Nefertiti etc.
You guys helped me learn about Akhenaten And Nefertiti. Now I learned something new. Thank you for your help!!!!!!
these people are so mean to you guys
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this is a good website to get info. on Akhenaten and i am doing a report on him.
This site is helpful. I had a project and it helped alot. THANKS!!!!!! You guys r awesome but need more words on Nefertiti and their kids
plz let me say rude stuff
vegetable samosa, 11/12:
saibaba is a krishe
yes i am calling you a loser! FREAK?
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needs more on queen tiy and akhenaten's relationship as mother and son!!!!!!!!
It needs more info on nefertiti' s achievements
you need to say who the author is and the published date on this site so people can write their bibliographies properly!!!!! This is so annoying
George Bush, 24/10:
I loved this site. akheneten rocks. k k k ty plox ftw!
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Thanks 4 the info but it isn't enough. you should put on more pics.
. I don't like history or geography.
THANK you. THIS IS WHAT I MEAN.
not teling , 07/09:
this is very good
Stuart , 20/06:
Excellent information. Akhenaten was in fact Solomon (Davids son) The large temple to Aten conforms to the measurements of the temple that Solomon built and he did enter into a marriage with Egypt by wedding Pharaohs daughter who was no doubt Nefertiti. This would account for the lack of information on Akhenaten's early life and the mystery as to where he was buried. Don't be confused by todays borders as the Nile would have been a natural border between countries.
This is an educational website which should not be used for internet chating. Students are trying to find information on Pharoahs and Ancient Egypt, they are not intending to see inapropriate conversations.
Thats excellent! That gives me a great, general insight into the climax and fall of Akhenaten. This is excelent because I need to do a essay on him and I now know who he was without being biased!
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oops shannon strock messed up th elast one
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Mary Jane, 24/04:
this website is really bad and so is everyone who puts a comment on it and you will all die soon
seventh grade is fun... except for that 200pt project that's due in 2 days... yeah
. yeah, i have the same dillema as that Erin character... need an author for a bibliography for a formal report thats 200pts and i need an author cause i have to give credit for my sources too.so yeah gotta finish that report
this is good, but i need to do a report on tutankhamun! no tutankhamun in there at all!! gr... _
yea you guys should listen for advice gosh gosh gosh and tel more bout his history....
You should make a book or something because I want to write a book report.
I guess this site helped. I needed work for Nefertiti on a history project, but i kind of need to know who the author and stuff if because i need to make a bibliography.
Thanks if you could
Erica , 25/01:
uhuh....this site is good...i had to do a project on these people and this helped alot
Tell more about Nefertiti being a female pharaoh.
Thankyou very much because all the other websites I went to didnt have it at all thankyou very much this is the best website I ever went to.
This site is okay. It is easy to understand and read btu I think it needs more detail about akhenaten's achievments and things. Yeha over all it a gud site compared ot what I have found.
you guys so go have a life!! :)
you sould put an option as to if someone would like to e-mail this text
You should put the author and date this was put on the internet in your site. And be more specific by saying what the achievements of these pharaohs were!