Thus, by applying Kepler's second kinematic law to the
hours circle, we arrive at a geometric system for the figurative representation
of time known as the Proportional Dial.
The Proportional Clock derives in turn from this dial and incorporates a new
figurative dimension of time in Architecture and Urban planning.
THE FALL OF THE INCAN CIVILIZATION
The demise of the Incan civilization, at the hands of the Spanish
Conquistadors, occurred in the 1500's, after years of fighting left the already
disarticulate anthology in more disarray. Continued
INCA ANCIENT RUINS
As with most civilizations, the Incans built temples, fortresses, pyramids,
celestial observatories, strange lines, and amazing stone structures that remain
an enigma to this day. Many of their projects were never completed.
Inca Civilization - 2
With the arrival from Spain in 1532 of Francisco Pizarro and his entourage of
mercenaries or conquistadors, the Inca empire was seriously threatened for the
first time. Duped into meeting with the conquistadors in a peaceful gathering,
an Inca emperor, Atahualpa, was kidnapped and held for ransom. After paying over
$50 million in gold by today's standards, Atahualpa, who was promised to be set
free, was strangled to death by the Spaniards who then marched straight for
Cuzco and its riches.
Ciezo de Leon, a conquistador himself, wrote of the astonishing surprise the
Spaniards experienced upon reaching Cuzco. As eyewitnesses to the extravagant
and meticulously constructed city of Cuzco, the conquistadors were dumbfounded
to find such a testimony of superior metallurgy and finely tuned architecture.
Temples, edifices, paved roads, and elaborate gardens all shimmered with gold.
By Ciezo de Leon's own observation the extreme riches and expert stone work
of the Inca were beyond belief: "In one of (the) houses, which was the richest,
there was the figure of the sun, very large and made of gold, very ingeniously
worked, and enriched with many precious stones. They had also a garden, the
clods of which were made of pieces of fine gold; and it was artificially sown
with golden maize, the stalks, as well as the leaves and cobs, being of that
Besides all this, they had more than twenty golden (llamas) with their lambs,
and the shepherds with their slings and crooks to watch them, all made of the
same metal. There was a great quantity of jars of gold and silver, set with
emeralds; vases, pots, and all sorts of utensils, all of fine gold - it seems to
me that I have said enough to show what a grand place it was; so I shall not
treat further of the silver work of the chaquira (beads), of the plumes of gold
and other things, which, if I wrote down, I should not be believed."
Much of the conquest was accomplished without battles or warfare as the
initial contact Europeans made in the New World resulted in rampant disease. Old
World infectious disease left its devastating mark on New World Indian cultures.
In particular, smallpox spread quickly through Panama, eradicating entire
populations. Once the disease crossed into the Andes its southward spread caused
the single most devastating loss of life in the Americas. Lacking immunity, the
New World peoples, including the Inca, were reduced by two-thirds.
In the years following the conquest, the only chroniclers of the Incan
culture lacked the objectivity and scientific interests needed for accurate
accounts. In addition, they all held to a rigid belief in the literal truth of
Biblical records. Thus, much of the myths and legends were held in revulsion, as
either trivial or immoral, and failed to reach the annals of Incan civilization.
Those myths that did survive may have been distorted or diluted by those
Incans who chose to adapt their stories for the Spanish Christian ears. No
conclusion can be made about this mysterious myth other than that is an
intriguing and complicated culture, whose form of communication, albeit
surreptitious, is innately beautiful.
With the aid of disease and the success of his initial deceit of Atahualpa,
Pizarro acquired vast amounts of Inca gold which brought him great fortune in