To measure this movement they built the temple itself as a giant clock to tell them how the progression of the sun was proceeding. We can use those same astronomical alignments to date the site.
On the first day of spring the sun rose exactly through the center of the archway of the temple. Based on the layout of the temple he deduced that on the first day of winter and the first day of summer the sun should rise over each of the huge cornerstones. But this is not the case. The position of the sun was, for some reason slightly outside the corner markers. The solstice markers are not misaligned.
By measuring the angle of the cornerstones and comparing that angle to today’s sunrise position Broznansky was able to calculate that the city was built 17,000 years ago. Steede feels that the construction is around 12,000.
While restoring the city a huge stables were found between the stones. The ancients would carve a groove in the edge and would pour in a molton liquids which hardened forming this staple. This is way to determine a timeline before recorded history.
The Temple of the Sun was once the most important temple of the Incas. When the Spanish conquered the Inca Empire, they used the fine Inca stonework to form the base of the Church of Santo Domingo. Inside the church area are some of the buildings built by the Incas that were used by the conquerors for their private quarters.
The temple also served as a tomb for several Incas, or kings. During Inca rule, the Coricancha, or Golden Courtyard, was covered with gold and silver sculptures representing llamas, corn, babies, and the sun.
When the Spaniards conquered Cuzco, the Inca capital, they set about stripping the gold from the temples and melting them down. Legend has it that it took three months to cart all of the gold from the Sun Temple.
On the peak of a hill overlooking the city of Cusco lies the ancient fortress of Sacsayhuaman (pronounced like sexy woman). Once the domain of Inca warriors, nobles and engineers it now stands in ruins but many visitors explore its maze of intricately constructed walls, stairways and structures. After the conquest of Cusco in 1536 most of the inner structures of Sacsayhuaman were dismantled and used to construct Spanish Cusco.
The carved stone walls fit so perfectly that no blade of grass or steel can slide between them. There is no mortar. They often join in complex and irregular surfaces that would appear to be a nightmare for the stonemason. There is usually neither adornment nor inscription. It reminds me of the stones of the Great Pyramid. That too has no inscriptions. One has to wonder wh created these great stone edifices with such precission in that timeline with such limited tools. Could they have been created by the same God? aliens?
Most of these walls are found around Cuzco and the Urubamba River Valley in the Peruvian Andes. There are a few scattered examples elsewhere in the Andes, but almost nowhere else on Earth.
Sacsahuaman was supposedly completed around 1508. It took approximately a crew of 20,000 to 30,000 men working for 60 years to complete it.
The chronicler Garcilaso de la Vega was born around 1530, and raised in the shadow of these walls. And yet he seems not to have had a clue as to how Sacsahuaman was built.
He wrote: This fortress surpasses the constructions known as the seven wonders of the world. For in the case of a long broad wall like that of Babylon, or the colossus of Rhodes, or the pyramids of Egypt, or the other monuments, one can see clearly how they were executed…how, by summoning an immense body of workers and accumulating more and more material day by day and year by year, they overcame all difficulties by employing human effort over a long period. But it is indeed beyond the power of imagination to understand now these Indians, unacquainted with devices, engines, and implements, could have cut, dressed, raised, and lowered great rocks, more like lumps of hills than building stones, and set them so exactly in their places. For this reason, and because the Indians were so familiar with demons, the work is attributed to enchantmet.
It would appear the timeline for the creation of the fortress is wrong.
Archaeologists tell us that the walls of Sacsahuaman rose ten feet higher than their remnants. That additional ten feet of stones supplied the building materials for the cathedrals and casas of the conquistadors. It is generally conceded that these stones were much smaller than those lithic monsters that remain. Perhaps the upper part of the walls, constructed of small, regularly-shaped stones was the only part of Sacsahuaman that was built by the Incas and “finished in 1508.” This could explain why no one at the time of the conquest seemed to know how those mighty walls were built.
Strange Stone Carvings
Steps that go nowhere – seats that are hard to get to – are to be found in astonishing abundance in the area around Cusco. They are carved so precisely, with their outside and inside corners so sharp and fine. Who carved them and why?
Ollantaytambo is rare if not unique in Peru. The gigantic monoliths you see here are part of what was to be a shrine or temple. At some time unknown, and for reasons unknown, work mysteriously stopped on this huge project. There are many other projets that were never completed, perhaps due to the Spanish invasion.
Not far from Cusco there is a hill they call the Temple of the Moon. The hill has several caves and many rock carvings. Some of the carvings here show extreme weathering. This most likely was used for ceremonial purposes.